Ostrakinda: A Game-Based Learning Toolkit for Ancient Mediterranean Cities





Architectural Education, Game-based Learning, Mediterranean, Priene, Toolkit


The study develops the 'Ostrakinda' toolkit for teaching morphologies of ancient Mediterranean cities. The methodology consists of a triple structure involving design, play, and analysis phases. In the design phase, the level of interest and actual demands of students regarding game-based learning (GBL) and ancient cities were explored through pre-experiments. The play phase involved experimental studies conducted in courses and workshops, where both physical and digital toolkits were tested by a total of 331 students. The analysis phase aimed to evaluate the impact of the game by systematically addressing five research questions. The results of the paired t-test confirm a significant difference in scores before and after playing the game, thus validating the effectiveness of the proposed strategy. Additionally, Chi-square (X2) tests revealed significant relationships between the form of play and the level of abstraction in the game outputs. Individual and group experiences during gameplay were associated with various interactions, and group experiences particularly fostered competitive and collaborative learning. The extensive analysis using the GBL Design Scale, comprising ten critical factors (GBL-Fn), showed that the challenge factor (F8) had the weakest values, while fantasy (F5) and narrative (F6) had the highest values in the correlation matrix. Overall, the study contributes methodologically and contextually to the existing literature, offering valuable findings for the future development of similar strategies in architectural education. However, it is important to acknowledge the limitations of this interdisciplinary study, particularly with regards to technical, cognitive, and archaeological aspects. Nevertheless, the clear and effective structure of the game holds promise as a valuable tool for learning.


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Author Biographies

Muhammet Ali Heyik, Yıldız Technical University

M. Ali Heyik, after graduating from the Department of Architecture in 2015, worked as an architect in several architectural offices in Istanbul, gaining experience through notable restoration projects in the Harem section of Topkapı Palace. In 2016, he was accepted into the Master's degree program in Architectural Design at Yıldız Technical University, where he successfully completed his studies in 2019, with a thesis entitled "Baths as Cultural Values and Mapping on Istanbul Baths." Since 2016, M. Ali Heyik has been actively engaged as a research assistant in the Department of Architecture at Yıldız Technical University, focusing on his ongoing PhD studies. His research endeavors encompass diverse fields, including design research, computational design, game-based learning, participatory design, collective intelligence, and ecosocial transition in coastal areas. M. Ali Heyik further enriched his academic journey by pursuing his doctoral research at UPM-Polytechnic University of Madrid as part of the Erasmus program between 2021 and 2022. Additionally, from 2022 to 2023, he conducted research at Granada University as part of the Tubitak 2214/A project

Meral Erdoğan, Yıldız Technical University

Prof. Dr. Meral Erdoğan completed her undergraduate education in Architecture at İstanbul State Engineering and Architecture Academy (İDMMA) Architecture Department (İstanbul, 1977), her master's degree in İDMMA Architectural Design Master's Program (İstanbul, 1979), and her doctoral studies in the Architecture Program at İstanbul Technical University, Faculty of Science (İstanbul, 1986). In 1980, Prof. Dr. Meral Erdoğan started her teaching and research activities as a Research Assistant at İDMMA Kadıköy Faculty of Engineering and Architecture. She became an Associate Professor at Yıldız Technical University (YTU), Faculty of Architecture in 1995 and a Professor in 2015. From 1991 to 2022, she conducted education and research activities in the field of Design Computing, Design Research, and Design Technologies in the Architecture Department's Computational Design discipline and in the Graduate Program in Computer Aided Architectural Design at YTU.

Togan Tong

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Togan Tong graduated from Yıldız University, Faculty of Architecture, Department of Architecture in 1988 as an Architect. In 1990, he graduated from Yıldız Technical University, Faculty of Architecture, Department of Architecture, Building Science Graduate Program as a Master Architect. In 2000, he received his Ph.D. from Istanbul Technical University, Faculty of Architecture, Department of Architecture, Building Information Doctorate Program. He has been working as an Associate Professor at UAK since April 1, 2021. Togan Tong, who has been continuing his academic career at Yıldız Technical University, Faculty of Architecture, Department of Architecture, Department of Building Information since 1992, has been working as a faculty member in the Department of Architecture in the 2021-2022 Spring semester. Togan Tong, who is the director of Undergraduate, Postgraduate and Doctorate courses on subjects such as Computer Aided Design and Modeling, Digital Simulation Environments and Digital Architectural Thinking, Computational Design, Rule-Based Designs, Integrated Design Technologies, Building Information Technologies, conducts Computer Aided Design courses at different foundation universities. He continues his Digital Design Education Consultancy at the Istanbul Metropolitan Branch of the Chamber of Architects.


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How to Cite

Heyik, M. A., Erdoğan, M., & Tong, T. (2023). Ostrakinda: A Game-Based Learning Toolkit for Ancient Mediterranean Cities . ICONARP International Journal of Architecture and Planning, 11(2), 838–865. https://doi.org/10.15320/ICONARP.2023.266