Evaluation of Optimal Criteria for Designing Solar Greenhouses in Cold Climate Residential Buildings (Case Study: Tabriz, Iran)





Solar greenhouse, optimal criteria for design, cold climate, energy consumption, residential buildings


Since a major part of energy in cold climates is spent on heating, using alternative methods to heat buildings is of particular importance for buildings. Solar greenhouses are inactive building solutions that absorb solar energy to provide heating in the side spaces. Greenhouse efficiency depends on several factors. The research carried out so far has used these factors in the design of a solar greenhouse to reduce energy consumption, which has finally been compared with the non-applied state of this system. The purpose of this study is to investigate the physical characteristics such as “depth”, “protrusion”, “roof slope”, and “orientation” of solar greenhouses and the influence of each factor in different modes and hours in the cold climate of Tabriz. For this purpose, a simulation has been made using “Energy Plus” software. In the next step, the optimal modes of solar greenhouse design are presented by comparing the different states of each physical factor on the first and the middle day of each month in a 6-hours period. Research results show; increasing the surface while the sun is shining and using more depth when there is no sun will maintain indoor temperature. Also, using two or three-way greenhouses (east and south) increases the efficiency of the greenhouse by 30%. The roof slope has no effect on heating the room adjacent to the greenhouse. Also, the absence of protrusions helps adjust the room temperature relative to the outside environment by up to 20 %. No significant effect on temperature was observed in calculating the ratio of greenhouse area to room area in summer. But in the cold season, a large greenhouse area greatly impacts by up to 15 %.


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Author Biographies

Arian Babaei, University of Guilan

Arian Babaei is an architect who graduated in Architectural Engineering from University of Guilan in 2019 with his research-based thesis project focusing on bio architecture methods. Since then, he has started to keep his concentration on his favorite field, and he has been researching in energy efficient design and ecological retrofitting of existing buildings. Now, He has several international work experiences in this area which makes him an expert in sustainable design.

Pari Alavi, Islamic Azad University of Zanjan

Dr. Pari Alavi is an expert of architecture and Official member of the road and urban department. She has obtained her Ph.D. with an average of 19/43 in 2022 from the Islamic Azad Zanjan University. Her major research interests are in architecture and urban regeneration. She has cooperated as a reviewer for several scientific journals such as IJEE, IJBP, FoAR …. She has presented more than 60 articles on related subjects at national and international conferences and published more than 10 papers in several journals.

Mohammad Almardani, Technical and Vocational University

Mohammad Almardani graduated as an architectural engineer in 2022 from Tabriz’s technical and vocational university in Iran. His thesis was in the field of energy and culture with a title of Designing a cultural and musical building with the approach of optimizing energy consumption. He is very interested in clean energy and has research experiences in sustainable architecture and efficient methods in construction.

Nasrin Jamei, Roozbeh Institute of Higher education

Nasrin Jamei graduated in Architectural Engineering from Roozbeh Institute of higher education in Zanjan. Her thesis was focusing on zero energy methods. She was deeply interested in optimizing energy in buildings and since her thesis she tried to focus more on it. From 2 years ago she has started to research and also has professional experience in this area.


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How to Cite

Babaei, A., Alavi, P., Almardani, M., & Jamei, N. (2023). Evaluation of Optimal Criteria for Designing Solar Greenhouses in Cold Climate Residential Buildings (Case Study: Tabriz, Iran). ICONARP International Journal of Architecture and Planning, 11(1), 249–270. https://doi.org/10.15320/ICONARP.2023.241