Evolution of Production Spaces: A Historical Review for Projecting Smart Factories





Factory, industrial building, industry and architecture, industry 4.0, production space


Factories are transforming not only mechanically and technologically but also architecturally due to emerging developments in the industry and fabrication: This new process, called the Second Machine Age or Industry 4.0, a new model is designed in production by providing the human-machine partnership over a virtual network. It is aimed that the machines used in production and the people participating in different stages of production can work in different spaces. In time, jobs that require human power will be replaced by robots, and a new order is being considered where there will be no people in production spaces, and they can work in the virtual environment. Production for human beings is mostly from material production to digital production; labour will turn into digital labour. For this reason, it is thought that production spaces will turn into smart factories with only machines and production robots and no workers. And now the question is: what is a smart factory? The revolutions in the industry history started with the invention of the steam engine; then, new technological revolutions were experienced with the use of electricity in production, the development of automation systems and internet-based systems. While technology and production tools are constantly changing, these developments also affect production spaces. Factories are also transforming to keep up with these rapid and continuous physical and fictional innovations. This study focuses on the architectural evolution of factories by following the technological revolutions of the industry. It examines the main criteria in the process of change and transformation of factories and spatial reflections of the revolutions. It establishes a relationship between production technology and the needs of the production spaces and seeks references from past samples. The study aims to review the historical background for generating a projection to new production spaces and to be a new discussion for future factories.


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Author Biographies

Merve Pekdemir Başeğmez, Abdullah Gül University

Merve Pekdemir Başeğmez holds a bachelor's degree in architecture from Erciyes University Kayseri in 2015, and has been working as a PhD researcher at Abdullah Gül University School of Architecture since 2017. Her primary research interests are industrial architecture, production spaces, developments in the industry and their spatial reflections on architecture, industry and city relations, architectural history, design and theory.

Burak Asiliskender, Abdullah Gül University

Burak Asiliskender (YTU, ITU) is a Professor of Architecture at Abdullah Gül University and the Dean of the School of Architecture. He studies, teaches and extensively publishes on architectural theory and design. He has been involved in the design and implementation projects of former Sümerbank Kayseri Textile Factory for AGU.


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How to Cite

Pekdemir Başeğmez, M., & Asiliskender, B. (2023). Evolution of Production Spaces: A Historical Review for Projecting Smart Factories. ICONARP International Journal of Architecture and Planning, 11(2), 716–733. https://doi.org/10.15320/ICONARP.2023.261