Evaluating Fear of Crime in the City from Ecological Perspective: A Study on Female University Students in Turkey





Ecological perspective, fear of crime, female university students, Turkish cities


Today, fear in urban areas is rapidly expanding its domain. Disadvantaged sections of the city feel the fear of crime more prominently because of their vulnerability. Among these segments, female university students are the subject of this study. The insecure feelings of female students who frequently use urban public spaces, live in less isolated environments than other parts of society and have to ride on public transportation at late hours, reduce their quality of life and add to their existing problems.  In particular, it can be expressed that environmental and design related factors affect female students’ fear of crime. The ecological approach based on this subject constitutes the starting point of this study. In this context, the study aims to analyze female university students’ fear of crime from the ecological perspective.  Within the scope of the study, a quantitative standardized questionnaire technique was used as a data collection tool for the above-mentioned purposes. According to the findings; female students feel a distinct fear of various crimes in Turkey as they do in every country in the world. In particular, sexual assault is the leading crime. Female students who are continuing their education in Turkish cities are inadequate in the context of integration with the city where they live and establishing neighborly relations. This leads to an increase in their level of unease. However, students feel unsafe in their daily life practices due to urban planning problems, irregularities and physical disorganizations. The value of this research, which is carried out with the idea that there is a significant deficiency in the field especially in terms of urban studies, is to be a leading survey in Turkey. In addition, the study is one of rare studies dealing with female university students’ fear of crime from an ecological perspective.  


Metrics Loading ...

Author Biography

Esra Banu Sipahi, Necmettin Erbakan University

Esra Banu Sipahi is an associate professor at Necmettin Erbakan University (Konya/TURKEY) in political science and public administration department. She graduated from Faculty of Economic and Administrative Sciences of Selçuk University in 2001. She tooks her master’s degree from Selçuk University in 2005 and doctor of phlosophy in 2011 from Ankara University. She took her associate professorship in 2017 from Inter-Universities Council in Turkey. Her proffessional sphere of interests are urbanization, environmental sciences, local governments, urban poverty, women studies and urban security.


Ayhan, I. & Çubukçu, K. M. (2007). Suç ve kent ilişkisine ampirik bakış: literatür taraması, Süleyman Demirel University Journal of Institute of Social Sciences, 3 (5), 30-55.

Colquhoun I. (2004). Design out crime. Oxford, UK: Architectural Press.

Çelik F. & Mirza, E. (2020). Fear of crime of students regarding Selçuk University, Alaeddin Keykubad Campus, Inonu University Journal of Art and Design, 10 (22), 1-21.

Duke Williams, O. (2009). The geographies of student migration in the UK. Environment and Planning A, 41(8), 1826–1848.

Ferraro, K. F. (1995). Fear of crime: Interpreting victimization risk. Albany: State University of New York Press.

Ferraro, K. F. (1996). Women's fear of victimization: Shadow of sexual assault?, Social Forces, 75 (2), 667-690.

Ferraro, K. (1995). The fear of crime: Interpreting victimization risk, New York State Unv. of New York Press.

Ferraro, K. F. & La Grange, R. (1987). The measurement of fear of crime. Sociological Inquiry, 57, 70-101.

Franklin, T.W., Franklin, C.A. & Fearn, N. E. (2008). A multilevel analysis of the vulnerability, disorder and social integration models of fear of crime. Social Justice Research, 21 (2), 204-227.

Hubbard, P. (2008). Regulating the social impacts of studentification: a loughborough case study. Environment and Planning A, 40(2), 323– 341.

Kenyon, E. L. (1997). Seasonal sub-communities: The impact of student households on residential communities. The British Journal of Sociology, 48 (2), 286-301.

Kul, M. (2013). Suçtan Daha Büyük Suç Korkusu. Istanbul: Yeniyüzyıl.

Miceli, R., Roccato, M. & Rosato, R. (2004). Fear of crime in Italy: Spread and determinants, Environment and Behavior, 36 (6), 776-789.

Oktik, N. (2013). Sosyal sapma ve suçun sosyolojisine kuramsal yaklaşimlar. G. Önkal & Ö. Sarı(Ed.), Suçun Sosyolojisi Cezanın Felsefesi (3-44), Ankara: Nobel.

Özaşçılar, M. (2015). Suç Korkusu ve yakın çevre düzensizliği ilişkisi: Kırık cam teorisi. Solak and Ö. Solak (Ed.), Gündelik Hayat Sosyolojisi Açısından Suç ve Suç Korkusu (329-347), Ankara: HEGEM.

Öztürk, M., Kocacık, F. & Gönültaş M. B. (2016). Suç korkusu ve risk algisinin toplumsal cinsiyet açisindan incelenmesi. International Journal of Human Sciences, 13(1), 1488-1502.

Rugg, J., Rhodes, D. & Jones, A. (2002). Studying a niche market: UK students and the private rented sector. Housing Studies, 17(2), 289–303.

Sipahi, E. B. & Şengün, H. (2017). Üniversiteli kız öğrencilerin suç korkularının “mağduriyet” perspektifinden analizi: Bayburt örneğinde bir araştırma. Toplum ve Demokrasi, 11(24), 57-80.

Sipahi, E. B., (2016). Suç Korkusu, Konya: Çizgi.

Skogan, W.G. (1987). The Impact of victimization on fear. Crime and Deliquency, 33(1),135-154.

Skogan, W.G. & M. G. Maxfield (1980). Coping with Crime: Victimization, Fear, and Crime in Three American Cities (Reactions to Crime Porjects), Document No.: 85506, Illinois: Northwestern Unv. Cebter for Urban Affairs.

Taylor, H. B. & M. Hale (1986). Testing Alternative Models of Fear of Crime, Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 77(1), 151-189.

Tuncer, T. & Islam, T. (2017). Studentification as a new form of gentrification: Changing neighborhood dynamics in bosna hersek neighborhood (Konya). Planlama, 27(3), 303-313.

Ünal Reşitoğlu, H. (2017). Kadınlar, mağdurluk ve suç korkusu. Toplum ve Demokrasi, 11(24), 37-56.

Ünsal, T. (2015). Kentleşme ve suç ilişkisi: Çocuk suçlular üzerine bir araştırma. Unpublished Dissertation. Ankara. Turgut Özal Unv. Institute of Social Sciences.

Warr, M. (1984). Fear of victimization: Why are women and the elderly more afraid? Social Science Quarterly, 65, 681–702.

Warr, M. (1985). Fear of rape among urban women. Social Problems. 32(3), 238-250.

Wilson, J. Q. & Kelling, G. L., (1982). Broken windows: The police and neighborhood safety, The Atlantic Monthly, March.

Wiltz, C. J. (1982). Fear of crime, criminal victimization and elderly blacks, Phylon, 43 (4) (4th Qtr.), 283-294.




How to Cite

Sipahi, E. B. (2022). Evaluating Fear of Crime in the City from Ecological Perspective: A Study on Female University Students in Turkey. ICONARP International Journal of Architecture and Planning, 10(1), 115–135. https://doi.org/10.15320/ICONARP.2022.196