Determining UHI Effect by Remote Sensing Method in Bolu City Centre, Turkey
Keywords:Urban Heat Island (UHI), LST, NDVI, GIS, Bolu
Urban Heat Island (UHI) has been described by authors as the UHI effect is among the most common forms of human origin (anthropogenic) local climate change. The increasing UHI effect with the differences in land use and landscape pattern varies depending on surface soil, watery field presence and vegetation. In this study, using Landsat 5 TM of 1994 and Landsat 7 ETM+ images of 2019, the ArcGIS 10.6.1 program and the remote sensing methods have identified surface temperature and vegetation distribution. Surface temperature values of the land-use in Bolu province of 2019, 1/5000 Urban Development Plan land uses and average temperature values were determined. The study revealed the change between urban development and the effect of land surface temperature over the course of 25 years, and discussed the UHI effect in the Bolu province. The effects of the historical process in Bolu city center on land surface temperature (with LST differences) and vegetation distribution (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index; NDVI) have been surveyed. The constraints of this study are that the spatial resolution in orthophotos of 1994 is low, and the type of land-use temperature data cannot be compared to 2019. For this reason, LST and NDVI analyzes were conducted in 1994 orthophotos, classifying all parcels with structure and related area in the form of manually constructed areas (built Environment). One of the findings of this study are surface temperatures of areas used as farmland in the year 1994 data reached higher values after they quickly began to urbanize in Bolu. The main reason for the high surface temperature in the Bolu province over the 25-year period is that agricultural areas are impurized and increasing population density and the albedo effect. It has been concluded that the lack of green space and lack of vegetation in the continuous urban area has increased the UHI effect.
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