Evaluation of Aluminium Production Waste in Building Material Production





Aluminum, baked building materials, Bayer process, bauxite residue, red mud



The production of aluminum is based on obtaining alumina from bauxite, which is also known as the "Bayer Process." However, waste that is enough to endanger the environment is released at the end of this process applied to obtain aluminum. In Turkey, red mud waste is released from Seydişehir ETİ Aluminum production facilities into the pond located within the settlements. Red mud, which creates a potential environmental problem, should be systematically eliminated. In the literature, there are hundreds of studies on this subject. However, it is observed that these studies will not accelerate the waste consumption process. The consumption of the waste as soon as possible will be possible by using it as the main raw material. In this context, using both the literature and the doctorate study of the manuscript's author, the methods for using the waste as a building material were discussed for the systematic consumption of it.


Accordingly, in the study, the physical (specific gravity, plastic limit, differential thermal analysis, etc.) and chemical properties (XRF) of the waste red mud were discussed together with the waste generation process starting with the Bayer process. Furthermore, the physical (specific gravity, water absorption, water vapor permeability, initial water absorption velocity), mechanical (compressive strength) of the building materials that could be produced by using the waste were also included in the study.


It was concluded that it was possible to produce a quality building material by using the waste as a raw material.

Research Limitations/Implications

Type the research limitations/implications of the paper here.

The study was limited to the mixing of red mud waste and pyroclastic rocks in certain proportions and their use as raw materials in the production of baked building materials by baking at different temperatures.

Social/Practical Implications

In this study, a solution method to a potential environmental problem was developed. Furthermore, a source of raw material was provided in sustainable building material production. Accordingly, a contribution can be made to the national economy with the building material that can be produced with local opportunities.


With the materials and joining methods used in the study, a production was made on a unique subject.


Metrics Loading ...

Author Biographies

Mustafa Dereli, Architecture

Mustafa Dereli works as a research assistant doctor at Konya Technical University, Department of Architecture. Dereli received MSc in Department of Architecture in 2004 from Selcuk University, Konya, Turkey. And he received PhD in 2019 on Using Industrial Waste for Sustainable Building Materials at Konya Technical University, Department of Architecture, Konya, Turkey.

Mustafa Tosun

Mustafa Tosun is a professor at Konya Technical University, Faculty of Architecture and Design, Department of Architecture. He supervised the thesis on which this study was used. He still trains students in the field of Building Information.


Arroyo, F., Luna-Galiano, Y., Leiva, C., Vilches, L. F., & Fernandez-Pereira, C. (2020, Jul). Environmental risks and mechanical evaluation of recycling red mud in bricks. Environmental Research, 186. https://doi.org/ARTN 109537 10.1016/j.envres.2020.109537

Arslan, S., Demir, G. K., Celikel, B., Baygul, M., & Suarez, C. E. (2012). Eti Aluminum Red Mud Characterization and Processing. Light Metals 2012, 81-85. ://WOS:000324538600015

ASTM_C67-11. (2011). Standard Test Methods for Sampling and Testing Brick and Structural Clay Tile. ASTM International.

ASTM_C109. (2001). Standard Test Method for Compressive Strength of Hydraulic Cement Mortars (Using 2-in. or [50-mm] Cube Specimens). ASTM International.

Dereli, M., & Tosun, M. (2020, Sep 5). Analysis of the effects of adding pyroclastic rock to red mud for the production of a baked building material in terms of its resistance to frost actions. Sn Applied Sciences, 2(10). https://doi.org/ARTN 1632 10.1007/s42452-020-03472-w

Helvacı, C., & Erkül, F. (2001). Volkaniklastik Kayaçlar Oluşumu, Genel Özellikleri ve Sınıflaması. Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi.

Li, Y. C., Huang, H., Xu, Z., Ma, H. Q., & Guo, Y. F. (2020, Apr 20). Mechanism study on manganese(II) removal from acid mine wastewater using red mud and its application to a lab-scale column. Journal of Cleaner Production, 253. https://doi.org/ARTN 119955 10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.119955

Malayoğlu, U., & Akar, A. (1995). Killerin Sınıflandırmasında ve Kullanım Alanlarının Saptanmasında Aranan Kriterlerin İrdelenmesi Endüstriyel Hammaddeler Sempozyumu, İzmir.

Olanca, K. (1999). Karapınar-Konya Yöresi Kuvaterner Volkanizması: Jeokimyasal Yorum. Hacettepe Üniversitesi Yerbilimleri Dergisi, 21, 115-124.

Özdemir, A. (2002). Bazı Yapı Malzemelerin Kapiler Su Emme Potansiyelleri. Jeoloji Mühendisliği, 26, 19-32.

Saternus, M. (2011). Bayern's Method of Al2O3 Production - Possibilities of Red Mud Disposal and Utilization. Light Metals and Their Alloys I: Technology, Mocrostructure and Properties, 176, 11-20. https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/SSP.176.11

TS_699. (2009). Tabii Yapı Taşları- Muayene ve Deney Metotları. TSE.

TS_1900-1. (2006). Zemin Malzemesi Fiziksel Özelliklerin Tayini, İnşaat Mühendisliği Zemin Laboratuvar Deneyleri. TSE.

TS_EN_771-1. (2005). Kil Kagir Birimler-Özellikler. TSE.

TS_EN_772-1. (2012). Kagir Birimler-Basınç Dayanımının Tayini. TSE.

TS_EN_772-11. (2002). Kagir Birimler-Deney Metodları: Betondan, Yapay Ve Doğal Taştan Yapılmış Kagir Birimlerde Kapiler Su Emme Ve Kil Kagir Birimlerde İlk Su Emme Hızının Tayini. TSE.

TS_EN_772-13. (2002). Kagir Birimler Deney Metodları: Kagir Birimlerde Net ve Brüt Yoğunluk Tayini. TSE.

TS_EN_15309. (2008). Characterization of waste and soil - Determination of elemental composition by X-ray fluorescence. TSE.

TS_EN_ISO_11358-1. (2014). Plastik - Polimerlerin Termogravimetri Analizi, Plastikler- Genel. TSE.

TS_EN_ISO_17892-3. (2016). Tane Yoğunluğunun Belirlenmesi, Geoteknik Etüd ve Deneyler. TSE.

Wang, Y. N., Tian, X., Zhao, H. B., & Liu, K. L. (2020, Aug). The use of a low-cost oxygen carrier prepared from red mud and copper ore for in situ gasification chemical looping combustion of coal. Fuel Processing Technology, 205. https://doi.org/ARTN 106460 10.1016/j.fuproc.2020.106460

Winkler, D., Bidlo, A., Bolodar-Varga, B., Erdo, A., & Horvath, A. (2018, Dec 10). Long-term ecological effects of the red mud disaster in Hungary: Regeneration of red mud flooded areas in a contaminated industrial region. Science of the Total Environment, 644, 1292-1303. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.07.059

Xiang, W. H., Ding, Q. J., & Zhang, G. Z. (2020, Jan-Feb). Preparation and characterization of porous anorthite ceramics from red mud and fly ash. International Journal of Applied Ceramic Technology, 17(1), 113-121. https://doi.org/10.1111/ijac.13148

Yuan, B., Yuan, S. S., Straub, C., & Chen, W. (2020, Feb 1). Activation of Binary Binder Containing Fly Ash and Portland Cement Using Red Mud as Alkali Source and Its Application in Controlled Low-Strength Materials. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 32(2). https://doi.org/Artn 04019356 10.1061/(Asce)Mt.1943-5533.0003023

Yuan, S., Liu, X., Gao, P., & Han, Y. X. (2020, Jul 15). A semi-industrial experiment of suspension magnetization roasting technology for separation of iron minerals from red mud. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 394. https://doi.org/ARTN 122579 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.122579

Zhang, J., Li, S. C., Li, Z. F., Liu, C., & Gao, Y. F. (2020, Sep). Feasibility study of red mud for geopolymer preparation: effect of particle size fraction. Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management, 22(5), 1328-1338. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10163-020-01023-4




How to Cite

Dereli, M., & Tosun, M. (2021). Evaluation of Aluminium Production Waste in Building Material Production. ICONARP International Journal of Architecture and Planning, 9(2), 991–1009. https://doi.org/10.15320/ICONARP.2021.189