• Veli Mustafa Yönder Res. Assist Izmir Institute of Technology Department of Architecture, Gülbahçe Campus İZMİR http://orcid.org/0000-0001-6740-3443




Building Skin, BIM, Generative Design (GD), Visual programming language



This study aims to produce generative curtain wall geometries based on predetermined parameters such as storey information, shadow zones, preliminary building unit cost, frequency, etc. in a BIM platform for the preliminary design of a future project in Basmane and understand its novel outcomes and implications.


The methodology is construed over four successive phases, namely: the built environment modeling, analyses for a solid understanding of the study area, determination of the generative design criteria, and finally design solutions. In the initial phase, the case-study building in Basmane with the surrounding environment was digitally modeled for the following analyses. Several programs apart from BIM have been utilized for the daylight zones and wind simulations. The daylight areas affecting the surface of the studied building were marked schematically per the simulation data. Subsequently, the area of the curtain wall, material type, preliminary building unit cost (assembly/labor and material cost), the height of storey, the density of elements, and fixed shading devices parameters were tested via optimization thru generative design methodology and provide potential design solutions by utilization of BIM tools.


The findings of this study could be boiled down to a single comprehensive objective of generating outputs of assorted design solutions thru a generative design approach. When the output data set is visualized via parallel coordinate graphs, it could be well articulated that the classification of rule-based relationships and the criteria interrelations were based on the designer's decisions.

Research Limitations/Implications

This study was examined on a case basis by an experimental approach. It shall be considered that the curtain wall construction encompasses diverse materials, connection details, and construction techniques that affect the final cost thus this research was conducted at the preliminary design stage and might not reflect actual costs.

Social/Practical Implications

Albeit the technical aspect of the curtain walls is not included in this case study, it helps generative design culture by demonstrating the extent of the opportunities it offers to designers in the preliminary design stage.


This study is a show-case of a preliminary design for an actual building stock in the vicinity of Basmane focusing on the building envelope design process with multiple parameters and should be regarded as an opportunity to understand how innovative solutions alike are put forward for the use of designers.

Author Biography

Veli Mustafa Yönder, Res. Assist Izmir Institute of Technology Department of Architecture, Gülbahçe Campus İZMİR

Veli Mustafa Yönder continues his studies on computational design methodologies in architecture and earned a bachelor's degree in architecture from İzmir Institute of Technology, Turkey. He completed his master's degree in architecture at the same university in 2019. He is currently a Ph.D. candidate in the Department of Architecture at İzmir Institute of Technology. After completing his bachelor's degree, he focused on gaining professional experience in an Architectural firm until he began his academic career as a research assistant.


Abrishami, S., Goulding, J., Rahimian, F. P., & Ganah, A. (2014). Integration of BIM and generative design to exploit AEC conceptual design innovation. Information Technology in Construction, 19, 350-359.

Aish, R. (2003). Bentley's Generative Components: a Design Tool for Exploratory Architecture. Bentley Systems Inc.

Autodesk Flow Design Software. (2017, June). Flow Design Overview. https://www.autodesk.com/products/flow-design/overview

Autodesk Revit 2020 Software. (2019, August). General View. https://www.autodesk.com.tr/products/revit/subscribe

Autodesk Blog. (2020, April 8). Generative Design in Revit now available. Revit Official Blog. https://blogs.autodesk.com/revit//2020/04/08/generative-design-in-revit/

Barazzetti, L., Banfi, F., Brumana, R., Gusmeroli, G., Previtali, M., & Schiantarelli, G. (2015). Cloud-to-BIM-to-FEM: Structural simulation with accurate historic BIM from laser scans. Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory, 57, 71-87. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.simpat.2015.06.004

Bentley, P. (1999). An introduction to evolutionary design by computers. Evolutionary design by computers, 1-73. Morgan Kaufmann Publishers.

Bryde, D., Broquetas, M., & Volm, J. M. (2013). The project benefits of Building Information Modelling (BIM). International Journal of Project Management, 31(7),971–980. https://doi.org/10.1016/ j.ijproman.20 12.12.001

Chase, S. C. (2005). Generative design tools for novice designers: Issues for selection. Automation in Construction, 14(6), 689-698. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.autcon.2004.12.004

Dore, C., Murphy, M., McCarthy, S., Brechin, F., Casidy, C., & Dirix, E. (2015). Structural simulations and conservation analysis -historic building information model (HBIM). ISPRS - International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, XL-5/W4, 351-357. https://doi.org/10.5194/isprsarchives-xl-5-w4-351-2015

Dynamo. (2020, April). Open source graphical programming for design. https://dynamobim.org/

Eastman, C. M., Eastman, C., Teicholz, P. M., Sacks, R., & Liston, K. (2011). BIM handbook: A guide to building information modeling for owners, managers, designers, engineers and contractors. John Wiley & Sons.

Fai, S., & Rafeiro, J. (2014). Establishing an appropriate level of detail (LoD) for a building information model (BIM)-West Block, Parliament

Elbiz, G. & Yönder, V. M. (2020). The Daylight Quality in Educational Buildings in Terms of The Form of Skylight, International Symposium of Architecture, Technology and Innovation (ATI), 26 - 33.

Gross, B., Bohnacker, H., Laub, J., & Lazzeroni, C. (2012). Generative design: Visualize, program, and create with JavaScript in p5.js. Princeton Architectural Press.

Ferreira, B., & Leitão, A. (2015). Generative Design for Building Information Modeling. CumInCAD. http://papers.cumincad.org/data/ works/att/ecaade2015_118.content.pdf

Frazer, J. (2002). Creative Design and the Generative Evolutionary Paradigm. Creative Evolutionary Systems, 253–274. Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-155860673-9/50047-1

Gagne, J., & Andersen, M. (2012). A generative facade design method based on daylighting performance goals. Journal of Building Performance Simulation, 5(3), 141-154. https://doi.org/10.1080/19401493.2010.549572.

Garber, R. (2014). BIM design: realising the creative potential of building information modelling. John Wiley & Sons.

Grasshopper 3D. (2019, August). About Grasshopper. https://www.grasshopper3d.com/

Kang, T. W., & Hong, C. H. (2015). A study on software architecture for

effective BIM/GIS-based facility management data integration. Automation in Construction, 54, 25–38. https://doi.org/10.1016/ j.autcon.2015.03.019

Krish, S. (2011). A practical generative design method. Computer-Aided Design, 43(1), 88–100. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cad.2010.09.009.

Krygiel, E., & Nies, B. (2008). Green BIM: Successful sustainable design with building information modeling. John Wiley & Sons.

Latiffi, A. A., Mohd, S., Kasim, N., & Fathi, M. S. (2013). Building information modeling (BIM) application in Malaysian construction industry. International Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 2(4A), 1-6.

McCormack, J., Dorin, A., & Innocent, T. (2004). Generative Design: a paradigm for design research. Proceedings of Futureground, Design Research Society, Melbourne.

McKnight, M. (2017). Generative design: What it is? How is it being used? Why it’s a game changer. KnE Engineering, 2(2), 176. https://doi.org/10.18502/keg.v2i2.612

MGM. (2019, November). Turkish State Meteorological Service. www.mgm.gov.tr /veridegerlendirme /il-ve-ilceler-istatistik.aspx?m=IZ-MIR

Migilinskas, D., Popov, V., Juocevicius, V., & Ustinovichius, L. (2013). The

Benefits, Obstacles and Problems of Practical Bim Implementation. Pro-cedia Engineering, 57, 767–774. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.20 13.04.097

Mirtschin, J. (2011). Engaging Generative BIM Workflows (pp. 1–8). http://ssi.wdfiles.com/local--files/about- us/Engaging%20Generative %20BIM%20Workflows%20submit.pdf.

Murphy, M., McGovern, E., & Pavia, S. (2009). Historic building information modelling (HBIM). Structural Survey, 27(4), 311-327. https://doi.org/10.1108/02630800910985108

Negendahl, K. (2015). Building performance simulation in the early design stage: An introduction to integrated dynamic models. Automation in Construction, 54, 39-53. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.autcon.2015.03.002

Project Refinery Beta. (2020, April). Information About Project Refineryhttps://www.autodesk.com/campaigns/refinery-beta

Renner, G., & Ekárt, A. (2003). Genetic algorithms in computer aided design. Computer-Aided Design, 35(8), 709–726. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0010-4485(03)00003-4.

Sebastian, R. (2011). Changing roles of the clients, architects and contractors through BIM. Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, 18(2), 176–187. https://doi.org/10.1108/09699981111111148

Shadow Analysis 2 Software. (2019, September). Info About Software. https://deltacodes.eu/en/ShadowAnalysis2

Shea, K., Aish, R., & Gourtovaia, M. (2005). Towards integrated performance-driven generative design tools. Automation in Construc-tion, 14(2), 253–264. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.autcon.2004.07.002

Singh, V., & Gu, N. (2012). Towards an integrated generative design framework. Design Studies, 33(2), 185–207. Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.destud.2011.06.001.

SketchUp Trimble Software. (2019, November). General Info About Products. https://www.sketchup.com/

Tayfur, G. (2014). Soft computing in water resources engineering: Artificial neural networks, fuzzy logic and genetic algorithms. WIT Press.

Villaggi, L., & Nagy, D. (2019). Generative Design for Architectural Space Planning: The Case of the Autodesk University 2017 Layout.

Yamamura, S., Fan, L., & Suzuki, Y. (2017). Assessment of urban energy performance through integration of BIM and GIS for smart city planning. Procedia Engineering, 180, 1462–1472.

Wang, P., Wu, P., Wang, J., Chi, H. L., & Wang, X. (2018). A critical review of the use of virtual reality in construction engineering education and training. International journal of environmental research and public health, 15(6), 1204.

Wong, K., & Fan, Q. (2013). Building information modelling (BIM) for sustainable building design. Facilities, 31(3/4), 138–157. https://doi.org/10.1108/02632771311299412




How to Cite

Yönder, V. M. (2020). A CASE STUDY ON GENERATIVE BUILDING SKIN FORMING BY EMPLOYING BUILDING INFORMATION MODELLING (BIM) TOOLS. ICONARP International Journal of Architecture and Planning ISSN: 2147-9380, 8, 01–17. https://doi.org/10.15320/ICONARP.2020.140