THE EFFECT OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS ON CHILDREN FROM THE VIEWPOINT OF PARENTS
The main purpose of this case study is to investigate the effect of increasing negative risk factors on children in outdoor playgrounds. There is a close relationship between children's playgrounds and children's health and safety in the open green areas that are gradually decreasing in the urban landscape. Children are faced with increasing parental concerns (abduction, harassment, self-harm, and inability to socialize), attention deficit in children, obesity and depression diseases. For this reason, the quality and livability of the environment we live in appear as factors that affect the decisions of parents on their children.
In this study, environmental factors and the quality of the environment were examined and the study questioning the concerns of parents about the use of children's playgrounds was discussed in three parts. The first part of the study consists of (i) the examination of children's playgrounds by the parents, the second part consists of (ii) the socio-demographic characteristics of the parents and the third part consists of (iii) the evaluation of the park criteria.
The findings obtained show that that parents with young children (2-4 years) (r =-,191*; r =,214**) prefer shopping malls suitable for all weather conditions (r =,261**) if there is not a playground in the garden of the house lived, but in some cases, the shopping mall is not preferred due to the risk of disease transmission and it brings a serious financial burden to families (r =-,163*), and if the parents are given a chance to prefer, they prefer a natural playground made of natural materials (r =-,220*). However, fathers did not prefer to wait at a very close distance for a well-groomed (r =,176*) control (r =,228*) where their children can spend time with their friends (r=,247**) on weekends alone (r =,166*), but it was determined that they were worried about their children being excluded and harmed by their friends (r =,249**).
Children are faced with increasing parental concerns (abduction, harassment, self-harm, and inability to socialize), attention deficit in children, obesity and depression diseases.
These data show that "play" has positive effects on children's health, and provides benefit in exploring children's creativity, sharpening their thinking skills and environmental awareness. Based on the results of the article, suggestions were developed on how designers, planners and park managers can implement the results in order to eliminate parents' fears and increase their motivation to take their children to children's playgrounds.
Acar, H. (2016). Assessment of Children’s Playgrounds in Terms of Design Approach, Physical Characteristics and User’s Ideas, Environmental Sustainability and Landscape Management, Chapter 3, ISBN: 978-954-07-4140-6, ST. Kliment Ohridski University Press, Sofia, 35-57p.
Acar, H. (2013). Landscape Design for Children and Their Environments In Urban Context. In: Özyavuz M. (Ed.) Advances In Landscape Architecture, Chapter 12, INTECH, Croatia, 291-324p.
Altman I., & Zube E.H. (1989). Public places and spaces, Plenum Pub Corp.
Barbour, A. C. (1999). The impact of playground design on the play behaviors of children with differing levels of physical competence, Early Childhood Research Quartely, 14(1),75-98.
Beckwith J. (1985), When Children Play, Association for childhood Education International, US.
Belknap, E., & Hazler, R. (2014). Empty Playgrounds and Anxious Children, Journal of Creativity in Mental Health, (12),210-231.
Bixler, R., Carlisle, D.L., Hammitt, W.E., & Floyd, M.F. (1994). Observed Fears and Discomforts Among Urban Students on Field Trips to Wildland Areas, The Journal of Environmental Education, 26 (1),24-33.
Bjorkland, D., & Brown, R. (1998). Physical play and cognitive development: Integrating activity, cognition, and education, Child Development, (69),604–606.
Blackford, H. (2004). Playground panopticism: ring-around-the-children, a pocketful of women, Childhood, 11(2),227–249.
Broekhuizen, K., Scholten, A. M., & Vries, S. I. (2014). The value of (pre)school playgrounds for children’s physical activity level: a systematic review, International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 11(59),1-28.
Carlsson, G. (2004). Travelling by urban public transport: exploration of usability problems in a travel chain perspective, Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, (11),78–89.
Clements, R. (2004). An investigation of the status of outdoor play, Contemporary Issues in Early Childhood, (5), 68-80.
Çelik, A., & Şahin, M. (2013). Sports and child development, Journal of Academic Social Science Studies, (6)1,467-478.
Çukur, D. (2011). Outdoor design that promotes healthy development in early childhood, SDU Faculty of Forestry Journal, (12), 70-76.
Disinger, J. F., & Roth, C. E. (1992). Environmental Literacy (ERIC Digest EDO-SE-92-1), ERIC Clearinghouse for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education, [ED 351 201], Columbus, OH.
Dollman, J., Norton, K., & Norton, L. (2005). Evidence for secular trends in children’s physical activity behaviour, British Journal of Sports Medicine, 39(12), 892-897.
Farley, T. A., Meriwether, R. A., Baker, E. T., Rice., J. C., & Webber, L. S. (2008). Where Do the Children Play? The Influence of Playground Equipment on Physical Activity of Children in Free Play, Human Kinetics Journals, 5(2),319-331.
Filipovaa, A. G., Syroeda, N. S., & Goncharovaa, S. V. (2016). Children’s Playgrounds and Everyday City Life of Childhood, International Journal of Environmental & Science Education, 11(10),3406-341.
Friedberg, M. P. (1982). Juvenile Play Areas, Chapter Seven in Handbook of speciality elements in architecture, Edited by A. Alpern, Mcgraw-Hill Book.
Frost, J. (2010). A history of children’s play and play environments: Toward a contemporary child-saving movement, ISBN-10:0415806208, New York, NY: Routledge. 268p.
Gagen, E.A. (2000). ‘Playing the Part: Performing Gender in America’s Playgrounds’, in S. Holloway and G. Valentine (eds) Children’s Geographies: Playing, Living, Learning, New York: Routledge, 213p.
Georgieva, M. (2018). “The children’s subculture” problem in the area of pedagogical research, The Teacher of The Future, 23(1),161-165.
Gibson, J. J. (1966). The senses considered as perceptual systems, Huoghton Mifflin
Ginsburg, K. R. (2007). The importance of play in promoting healthy child development and maintaining strong parent-child bonds, Pediatrics, 119(1),182–191.
Gray, P. (2011). The decline of play and the rise of psychopathology in children and adolescents, American Journal of Play, (3),443–463.
Green, J., & Hart, L. (1998). Children’s views of accident risks and prevention: a qualitative study, Injury Prevention, (4),14-21.
Gülay, H. (2011). As the twig is bent, so grows the tree: The importance of environmental education in the first years of life, Tübav Bilim Dergisi, 4(3),240-245.
Gür, Ş. (2002). Children's Places, Yem Yayınevi, ISBN: 978599054, 304Pp.
Hamilton, I., Harrop, A., & Street, C. (2001). The Value of Children’s Play and Play Provision in England: A Literatura Review, New Policy Institute, United Kingdom
Heft, H. (1988). Affordances of children's environments: A functional approach to environmental description, Children’s Environments Quarterly, 5(3),29-37.
Jansson, M. (2008). Children's Perspectives on Public Playgrounds in Two Swedish Communities, Children, Youth and Environment, 18(2), 88-109.
Karsten, L. (2005). It all used to be better? Different generations on continuity and change in urban children's daily use of space, Children's Geographies, (3),275-290.
Kretzmann, M., Shih, W., & Kasari, C. (2015). Improving Peer Engagement of Children With Autism on the School Playground: A Randomized Controlled Trial, Behavior Therapy, 46(1),20-28.
Koçyiğit, S., Tuğluk, M.N., & Kök, M. (2007). Game as an Educational Event in the Child's Development Process, 16p.
Kuo, F. E., & Faber Taylor, A. (2004). A potential natural treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Evidence from a national study, American Journal of Public Health, (94),1580-1586.
Kytta, M. (2004). The Extent of Children’s Independent Mobility and the Number of Actualized Affordances as Criteria for Child-Friendly Environments, Journal of Environmental Psychology, (24),179-198.
Lıllıs, K., & Jaffe, D. (1997). Playground injuries in children, Pediatric Emergency Care, 13(2),149-153.
Loebach, J. (2004). Designing Learning Environments For Children: An Affordance-Based Approach to Providing Developmentally Appropriate Settings. Master of Environmental Design Studies, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia.
Louv, R. (2012). The Last Child in Nature, TÜBİTAK Popüler Bilim Kitapları, ISBN: 978-975-403-512-4, Semih Ofset Matbaacılık, Ankara.
Mitchell, R., Cavanagh, M., & Eager, D. (2006). Not all risk is bad, playgrounds as a learning environment for children, International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion, 13(2),122-124.
Montessori, M. (1966). The Montessori Method. (Introduction by J.Mc. V. Hunt), seventh printing, New York.
Nixon, J., Pearn, J., & Wilkey, I. (1981). Death during play: a study of playground and recreation deaths in children, National Library of Medicine, 283(6288), 410.
Norton, C., Nixon, J., & Sibert, J. R. (2004). Playground injuries to children, Disease in Childhood, 89(2),103-108.
Pate, R. R., & O’Neill, J. R. (2012). Physical activity guidelines for young children: an emerging consensus, Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 166(12),1095-1096.
Pepler, D.J., Craig, W. M., & Roberts, W. L. (1998). Observations of Aggressive and Nonaggressive Children on the School Playground, Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 28(1),55-76.
Plumwood, V. (2002). Environmental culture: the ecological crisis of reason. London: Routledge.
Prellwitz, M., & Skar, L. (2007). Usability of playgrounds for children with different abilities, Occupational Therapy International, 14(3),144-155.
Refshauge, A. D., Stigsdotter, U. K., & Cosco, N. G. (2012). Adults’ motivation for bringing their children to park playgrounds, Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 11(4),396-405.
Smoyer-Tomic, K. E., Hewko, J. N., & Hodgson, M. J. (2004). Spatial accessibility and equity of playgrounds in Edmonton, Canada, The Canadian Geographer, 48(3),287–302.
Smith, S.J. (1998). Risk and Our Pedagogical Relation to Children: On the Playground and Beyond. Albany: State University of New York Press.
Stagnetti, K. (2004). Understanding play: the implications for play assessment, Australian Occu-pational Therapy Journal, (51), 3–12.
Stansell, C. (1982). ‘Women, Children, and the Uses of the Streets: Class and Gender Conflicts in New York City, 1850–1860’, Feminist Studies, 8(2), 309–35.
Taylor, E. (2020). Playgrounds, Injuries, and Data: Keeping Children Safe, NASN School Nurse, 35(5), 266-268.
Taylor, A. F., Kuo, F. E., & Sullivan, W. C. (2002). View of Nature and Self Discipline: Evidence from Inner City Children, Journal of Environmental Psychology, (11)54-77.
Timmons, B. W., Leblanc A. G., Carson, V., Connor Gorber, S., Dillman, C., Janssen, I., Kho, M. E., Spence, J.C., Stearns, J.A., & Tremblay, M.S. (2012). Systematic review of physical activity and health in the early years (aged 0–4 years), Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 37(4),773-792.
Unicef Turkiye. (25.04.2019): https://www.unicefturk.org/sayfa/turkiye
Veitch, J., Bagley, S., Ball, K., & Salmon, J. (2006). Where do children usually play? A qualitative study of parents’ perceptions of influences on children's active free-play, Health & Place, (12),383-393.
Ward, C. (1990). The Child in the City, ISBN:9780719912597, London: Bedford Square Press, 116p.
Wells, N. M., & Evans, G. W. (2003). Nearby Nature A Buffer of Life Stress Among Rural Children, Environmental and Behavior, 35(3),311-330.
White, R., & Stoecklin, V. L. (1998). Children’s Outdoor Play & Learning Environments: Returning to Nature. Early Childhood New, White Hutchinson Leisure & Learning Group.
Wridt, P. J. (2004). An historical analysis of young people’s use of public space, parks and playgrounds in New York City, Children, Youth and Environments, 14(1), 86-106.
Yılmaz, S., & Bulut, Z. (2007). Analysis of user's characteristics of three different playgrounds in districts with different socio-economical conditions, Building and Environment, 42(10),3455-3460.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 Iconarp International Journal of Architecture and Planning
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
1. The International Journal of Architecture and Planning (ICONARP) open access articles are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDeriatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0). This license lets the author to share (copy and redistribute) his/her article in any medium or format.
2. ICONARP cannot revoke these freedoms as long as you follow the license terms. Under the following terms:
The author must give appropriate credit, provide a link to ICONARP, and indicate if changes were made on the article. The author may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the ICONARP endorses the author or his/her use.
The author may not use the article for commercial purposes.
If the author remix, transform, or build upon the article, s/he may not distribute the modified material.
The author may share print or electronic copies of the Article with colleagues.
The author may use the Article within his/her employer’s institution or company for educational or research purposes, including use in course packs.
3. The author authorizes the International Journal of Architecture and Planning (ICONARP) to exclusively publish online his/her Article, and to post his/her biography at the end of the article, and to use the articles.
4. The author agrees to the International Journal of Architecture and Planning (ICONARP) using any images from the Article on the cover of the Journal, and in any marketing material.
5. As the author, copyright in the Article remains in his/her name.6. All papers should be submitted electronically. All submitted manuscripts must be original work that is not under submission at another journal or under consideration for publication in another form, such as a monograph or chapter of a book. Authors of submitted papers are obligated not to submit their paper for publication elsewhere until an editorial decision is rendered on their submission. Further, authors of accepted papers are prohibited from publishing the results in other publications that appear before the paper is published in the Journal.