Effects on Students’ Perceptual Evaluations of the Wall Colors Used in Design Studios by the Virtual Reality Method





Design studio, Wall color, Perception, Virtual reality, Interior design


In this study, it was aimed to determine the perceived quality of three modeled virtual design studios which have the same characteristics but different colors (warm, cool and neutral) and to determine whether there was a difference between the real space and the evaluations made in the virtual space. Accordingly, it was assumed that the wall coloring of the virtual studio space models that were modeled could affect the perceptions of the students and that virtual space evaluations would be in parallel with real space evaluations. To test the assumption, the study modeled the environments of three design studios with different colors assumed to exist at a design studio of the Selçuk University and students were asked to evaluate these virtual spaces with the aid of virtual reality goggles. As a result, it has been determined that there was no difference between the perceptual evaluations of real and virtual spaces designed with the same features. In addition, according to the spatial scale, it was determined that the cool colored space were perceived as “more roomy” and “more inviting” by the students compared to the warm colored space and that the cool colored space was also evaluated more positively for the social adaptation and individual productivity scales.


Metrics Loading ...

Author Biographies

Kemal Yıldırım, Gazi University

Kemal Yıldırım is presently employed as a Professor at the Gazi University in Ankara, Turkey. He received his MA and PhD in Interior Design from the same University. His main research topic has been the analysis of interior space and user satisfaction in connection with the visual perception of space. Prof. Yıldırım has written over 100 national and international scientific articles in the field of Furniture and Interior Design. He has received awards in furniture design from many national and international prestigious design competitions.

Mehmet Lütfi Hidayetoğlu, Selcuk University

Mehmet Lütfi Hidayetoglu is Professor of Industrial Design at Selcuk University in Turkey. He was assigned to Interior Architecture and Environmental Design Department, Faculty of Arts in Selcuk University as a Research Associate in 2005. He participated in many exhibitions with his designs and published numerous academic papers about interior architecture, sustainability, smart environment, spatial perception, environmental psychology, colour, light, traditional civil architecture and furniture designs.

Nurettin Gökbulut, Gazi University

Nurettin Gökbulut is currently a graduate student in the Department of Furniture and Decoration, Gazi University Institute of Science, researching human-object density and color perceptions in architectural spaces.

Menşure Kübra Müezzinoğlu, Selcuk University

Menşure Kübra Müezzinoğlu is an interior architecture and environmental designer and lecturer in Selcuk University faculty of Fine Arts. Currently she is a doctoral student in the Department of Architecture, Selcuk University Institute of Science, researching color perceptions in educational spaces.


Ayalp, N., Yildirim, K., Bozdayi, M., & Cagatay, K. (2016). Consumers’ evaluations of fitting rooms in retail clothing stores. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 44(5), 524-539. doi:10.1108/IJRDM-06-2015-0085

Ayalp, N., Yıldırım, K., & Çağatay, K. (2017). Effect on Users of the Seating Element Types in Cafés/Restaurants. Gazi University Journal of Science, 30(4), 15-28.

Aydinli, S. (1986). Mekansal Değerlendirmede Algısal Yargılara Dayalı Bir Model (Doctoral Dissertation). Istanbul.

Baker, J. (1986). The role of the environment in marketing services: the consumer perspective. In: J. Sahanahan (Ed.). The services challenge: Integrating for competitive advantage, 79-84.

Berlyne, D. E. (1974). Studies in the new experimental aesthetics: Steps toward an objective psychology of aesthetic appreciation: Hemisphere.

Bozdag, N. (2018). Gerçeklik ve Mekan: Melez Mekan Mimarlıgı (Master Dissertation). Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon.

Cagatay, K., Hidayetoglu, M. L., & Yildirim, K. (2017). Effects of Colors Used For Corridor Walls of High Schools on Perceptual Evaluations of Students. H.U. Journal of Education, 32(2), 466-479. doi:10.16986/HUJE.2016016672

Camgöz, N., Yener, C., & Güvenç, D. (2004). Effects of hue, saturation, and brightness: Part 2: Attention. Color Research & Application, 29(1), 20-28. doi:10.1002/col.10214

Cronbach, L. J. (1951). Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests. psychometrika, 16(3), 297-334. doi:10.1007/BF02310555

Curran, J. P., & Cattell, R. B. (1976). Manual for the eight state questionnaire. Champaign, IL: Institute for Personality and Ability Testing.

Engelbrecht, K. (2003). The Impact of Color on Learning. Chicago, Illinois: Perkins & Will.

Erturk, S. (1983). Mimari Mekanların Algılanması Üzerine Deneysel Bir Çalışma. Karadeniz Teknik Üniversitesi Yayınlanmış Doktora Tezi, Trabzon.

Gobbetti, E., & Scateni, R. (1998). Virtual reality: Past, present, and future. Amsterdam:IOS: Virtual environments in clinical psychology and neuroscience: Methods and techniques in advanced patient-therapist interaction.

Grangaard, E. M. (1993). Effects of Color and Light on Selected Elementary Students (Doctoral Dissertation). Las Vegas.

Hamid, P. N., & Newport, A. G. (1989). Effect of colour on physical strength and mood in children. Perceptual and motor skills, 69(1), 179-185. doi:10.2466/pms.1989.69.1.179

Hathaway, W. E. (1987). Light, colour & air quality: important elements of the learning environment. Education Canada, 27(3), 35-44.

Helvacıoglu, E. (2007). Color contribution to children’s wayfinding in school environments (Doctoral Dissertation). Bilkent University Institute of Fine Arts, Ankara.

Hidayetoglu, M. L. (2010). Üniversite Eğitim Yapılarının İç Mekanlarında Kullanılan Renk ve Işığın Mekansal Algılama ve Yön Bulmaya Etkileri (Doctoral Dissertation). Gazi Universty Institute of Science, Ankara.

Hidayetoglu, M. L., Yildirim, K., & Akalin, A. (2012). The effects of color and light on indoor wayfinding and the evaluation of the perceived environment. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 32(1), 50-58. doi:10.1016/j.jenvp.2011.09.001

Hwang, J., Yoon, S. Y., & Bendle, L. J. (2012). Desired privacy and the impact of crowding on customer emotions and approach-avoidance responses: Waiting in a virtual reality restaurant. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 24(2), 224-250. doi:10.1108/09596111211206150

İmamoğlu, V. (1975). Spaciousness of interiors. Glasgow: University of Strathclyde. Unpublished Ph. D. Thesis.

Kaplan, R. M., & Saccuzzo, D. P. (2009). Psychological Testing: Principles, Applications and Issues. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.

Kuliga, S. F., Thrash, T., Dalton, R. C., & Hölscher, C. (2015). Virtual reality as an empirical research tool—Exploring user experience in a real building and a corresponding virtual model. Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, 54, 363-375. doi:10.1016/j.compenvurbsys.2015.09.006

McAdrew, F. T. (1993). Environmental Psychology. Wadsworth, Inc., Belmont, California: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company.

McKinley, R. K., Manku-Scott, T., Hastings, A. M., French, D. P., & Baker, R. (1997). Reliability and validity of a new measure of patient satisfaction with out of hours primary medical care in the United Kingdom: development of a patient questionnaire. Bmj, 314(7075), 193. doi:10.1136/bmj.314.7075.193

McNair, D. M., Lorr, M., & Droppleman, L. F. (1971). Manual for the profile of mood states (POMS). San Diego: Educational and Industrial Testing Service.

Moore, G. T., McCarty, A. L., & Jelin, G. (1995). Children's Village: A safe haven for children of stress and violence. Children's Environments, 12(1), 1-24.

Muezzinoglu, M. K. (2018). Eğitim Mekânlarında Kullanılan Renk ve Işığın Öğrencilerin Fonksiyonel ve Algısal Değerlendirmeleri Üzerindeki Etkileri (Effects on Functional And Algorithm Values of Color And Light Students Used in Educational Areas). Doctoral Dissertation., Selcuk Universty Institute of Science, Konya.

Nelson, J. G., Pelech, M. T., & Foster, S. F. (1984). Color preference and stimulation seeking. Perceptual and motor skills, 59(3), 913-914. doi:10.2466/pms.1984.59.3.913

Nowlis, V. (1965). Research with the mood adjective check list. In Affect, cognition, and personality: Empirical studies. (pp. xii, 464-xii, 464). Oxford, England: Springer.

Olds, A. R. (1989). Psychological and physiological harmony in child care center design. Children's Environments quarterly, 6(4), 8-16.

Osgood, C. E., Suci, G. J., & Tannenbaum, P. H. (1957). The measurement of meaning: University of Illinois Press.

Panayides, P. (2013). Coefficient alpha: interpret with caution. doi:10.23668/psycharchives.1414

Read, M. A., Sugawara, A. I., & Brandt, J. A. (1999). Impact of space and color in the physical environment on preschool children’s cooperative behavior. Environment and Behavior, 31(3), 413-428. doi:10.1177/00139169921972173

Sommer, R. (1969). Personal Space: the Behavioral Basis of Design. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Stone, N. J. (2003). Environmental view and color for a simulated telemarketing task. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 23(1), 63-78. doi:10.1016/S0272-4944(02)00107-X

Stone, N. J., & English, A. J. (1998). Task type, posters, and workspace color on mood, satisfaction, and performance. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 18(2), 175-185. doi:10.1006/jevp.1998.0084

Tlauka, M., Brolese, A., Pomeroy, D., & Hobbs, W. (2005). Gender differences in spatial knowledge acquired through simulated exploration of a virtual shopping centre. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 25(1), 111-118. doi:10.1016/j.jenvp.2004.12.002

Tsunetsugu, Y., Miyazaki, Y., & Sato, H. (2005). Visual effects of interior design in actual-size living rooms on physiological responses. Building and Environment, 40(10), 1341-1346. doi:10.1016/j.buildenv.2004.11.026

Wallet, G., Sauzéon, H., Larrue, F., & N'Kaoua, B. (2013). Virtual/real transfer in a large-scale environment: impact of active navigation as a function of the viewpoint displacement effect and recall tasks. Advances in Human-Computer Interaction, 2013, 8. doi:10.1155/2013/879563

Wang, H., & Russ, R. R. (2008). Computer classroom wall colour preference and the relationship with personality type of college students. Colour: Design and Creativity, 2, 1-13.

Witmer, B. G., Bailey, J. H., Knerr, B. W., & Parsons, K. C. (1996). Virtual spaces and real world places: transfer of route knowledge. International journal of human-computer studies, 45(4), 413-428. doi:10.1006/ijhc.1996.0060

Wolbers, T., & Hegarty, M. (2010). What determines our navigational abilities? Trends in cognitive sciences, 14(3), 138-146. doi:10.1016/j.tics.2010.01.001

Yildirim, K., Akalin-Baskaya, A., & Hidayetoglu, M. L. (2007). Effects of indoor color on mood and cognitive performance. Building and Environment, 42(9), 3233-3240. doi:10.1016/j.buildenv.2006.07.037

Yildirim, K., Ayalp, N., Guner Aktas, G., & Lutfi Hidayetoglu, M. (2014). Consumer perceptions and functional evaluations of cash desk types in the clothing retail context. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 42(6), 542-552. doi:10.1108/IJRDM-03-2013-0056

Yildirim, K., Cagatay, K., & Ayalp, N. (2015). Effect of wall colour on the perception of classrooms. Indoor and Built Environment, 24(5), 607-616. doi:10.1177/1420326X14526214

Yildirim, K., Hidayetoglu, M. L., & Capanoglu, A. (2011). Effects of interior colors on mood and preference: comparisons of two living rooms. Perceptual and motor skills, 112(2), 1-16. doi:10.2466/24.27.PMS.112.2.509-524

Yıldırım, K., & Oğuzhan, U. (2010). The effects of space quality of dormitory rooms on functional and perceptual performance of users: Zübeyde Hanım Sorority. Gazi University Journal of Science, 23(4), 519-530.

Zuckerman, M., & Lubin, B. (1985). Manuel for the MAACL-R: The multiple affect adjective check list: Educational and Industrial Testing Service.




How to Cite

Yıldırım, K., Hidayetoğlu, M. L., Gökbulut, N., & Müezzinoğlu, M. K. (2019). Effects on Students’ Perceptual Evaluations of the Wall Colors Used in Design Studios by the Virtual Reality Method. ICONARP International Journal of Architecture and Planning, 7(1), 99–120. https://doi.org/10.15320/ICONARP.2019.68