Utilization of Intelligent Facade Technologies in High-rise Office Buildings: A Comparative Study





Facade technologies, High-rise buildings, Intelligent façade, Office buildings


In the late 19th century, spurred by the Industrial Revolution and the concomitant rise in population and technological advancements, high-rise buildings began to emerge in urban centers. Initially, concerns regarding the environmental impacts of these structures were not at the forefront. However, the advent of sustainability debates in the 1970s elevated this discourse, particularly regarding high-rise buildings. This progression notably influenced the materials and facade systems of high-rise structures. Alterations in building facades subsequently catalyzed the development of adaptive building coatings that consider environmental factors, climate variations, and user preferences. Termed as intelligent facade systems, these innovative facades aim to enhance indoor comfort and diminish energy consumption. Integration of control and sensing technologies into facades has rendered them multifunctional components. The amalgamation of diverse technologies has rendered the concept of intelligent facades intricate, thereby complicating a definitive definition. This study scrutinizes the employment of intelligent facade systems in high-rise buildings, offering a fresh perspective by proposing a classification in line with existing definitions and classifications in the literature. It categorized the changes introduced by integrated devices and mechanisms into five groups: passive, mechanical, electro-mechanical, integrated technology, and information technology. Additionally, changes resulting from materials are classified under energy and property-transforming materials. Based on the new proposed classification, a comprehensive comparative analysis of 20 high-rise office buildings, encompassing 10 from Turkiye and 10 from across the globe, was conducted. The investigation revealed passive technologies as the prevailing systems employed in high-rise building facades, both domestically in Turkiye and worldwide. Integrated technology is the second most utilized system after passive technology. Based on all the investigations conducted, it can be concluded that energy-changing materials are employed in a greater number of buildings worldwide compared to Turkiye. However, there is still concurrent progress in facade technology.


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Author Biographies

Fazilet Tuğrul Okbaz, Gebze Technical University

Fazilet TUĞRUL OKBAZ completed her undergraduate education with honors in the Department of Architecture at DEU in 2012. She has completed her master and PhD studies at Mimar Sinan Fine Arts University. She started as a research assistant at Gebze Technical University in 2013 and has been serving as an Instructor, PhD. since 2020. Her research areas include high-rise buildings, building technologies, and intelligent facades. She has published many national and international scientific paper and book chapters. She contributes building science, structural systems and technologies, tall buildings courses, and design studios.

Simay Aydinç, Gebze Technical University

Simay AYDİNÇ, received her bachelor’s degree from Gebze Technical University, department of Architecture in 2020 and her master’s degree in architecture in 2023 from Gebze Technical University. She currently works as a project coordinator at Aterko Construction. Her primary research interests are high-rise buildings, high-rise building facades and facade technologies.

Ferhat Pakdamar, Istanbul Technical University

Ferhat PAKDAMAR is an Associated Professor of the Department of Architecture at İstanbul Technical University since 2024. He has completed his master and PhD studies at Istanbul Technical University. He worked as an academic and served as the vice dean of the Gebze Technical University Faculty of Architecture. ​His research interests are artificial intelligence and performance analysis of structures in his PhD thesis. He has published many national and international scientific paper and book chapters. He contributes structural courses, design studios and also conducts some graduate thesis.


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How to Cite

Tuğrul Okbaz, F., Aydinç, S., & Pakdamar, F. (2024). Utilization of Intelligent Facade Technologies in High-rise Office Buildings: A Comparative Study. ICONARP International Journal of Architecture and Planning, 12(1), 24–45. https://doi.org/10.15320/ICONARP.2024.274