Filiz Umaroğulları, Semiha Kartal, Dinçer Aydın


In today’s living conditions, the quality of life depends on well-managed energy. Therefore, countries produce different energy policies to manage their energy resources. Determining appropriate, feasible, and controllable energy policies becomes important especially for buildings, as being one of the most significant energy consumers. Green building certification systems (GBCSs) are one of the most common applications for energy efficiency in the building sector.


This paper is a comparative analysis of GBCSs in developed and developing countries, in an effort to establish the similarities and differences between Turkey’s first national GBCS – B.E.S.T and other GBCSs, and to determine how the energy criteria in GBCSs contribute to each dimension of sustainability (i.e., environmental, economic, social).


The research methodology depends on the literature review and documentary review on energy-related regulations, legislation, and laws. A comparative analysis of GBCSs was conducted in the study. Not only the sub-criteria directly exist under the energy criterion, but also indirect energy criteria, which are included in the sub-criteria of all other criteria within the GBCS, were numerically evaluated with the helped of developed matrix.


The results show that energy credits were given the highest weight by LEED (~33%) in international GBCSs and by GRIHA (~42%) in national GBCSs. In B.E.S.T, this is ~29%. It was determined that B.E.S.T was structurally similar to LEED, while it was similar to BREEAM in terms of weight and importance given to the energy criteria. According to the developing country GBCSs, the biggest similarity is seen with GBI. In terms of SD, it is found that GBCSs present similar characteristics to their regional development level. Where a GBCS serves for a developing region, the main concerns of energy criteria focus on the intersection of its environmental and economic aspects. Thus, B.E.S.T has been created in a similar structure and the highest share (%80) on environmental-economic aspects.

Research Limitations

In the study, the comparison was made between selected international GBCSs like BREEAM, LEED, and DGNB and national GBCSs like GM, GBI, and GRIHA.

Practical Implications

In practice, the results can help owners or developers to focus on which energy criteria contribute economic, social or environmental advantage for them.

Social Implications

This study also provides some recommendations for further application and academic studies of B.E.S.T.


Increasing the recognition of Turkey’s national GBCS in scientific researches and contributing to the development of it have made this study original and unique.


B.E.S.T, CEDBIK, energy, Green Building Certification System (GBCS), sustainability dimension

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15320/ICONARP.2020.110
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