Ufuk Altunbaş



Contribution to our country’s urban transformation application literature was aimed via the transformation and mathematical distribution model which was developed considering the unique properties of Okmeydanı Urban Transformation Area, which was officially declared as “risk area” by the Cabinet. 


After the Introduction, information about the emergence, definition, purpose, and differences in the historical application of the concept of urban transformation were given. The changes of urban transformation practices and their reflections on the cities since 1950s in Turkey were analyzed on the basis of urban transformation experiences and practices in the developed countries. Financial methods used in transformation projects were discussed in detail by taking the current urban transformation law and policies into consideration. On the third section, physical, social, and economic data regarding the City of Istanbul, Country of Beyoğlu, Okmeydanı Urban Transformation area, which is the main topic of this study were presented in detail. The urban transformation and distribution model which was developed based on the technical data, community requests, and official data was described in detail with its formulas. In the conclusion section, the reflections of the model on both the area itself and on the city were evaluated.


In accordance with the analysis conducted based on the current settlement, the size of the population, and the zoning plan of the urban transformation area; it is inevitable for the rights holders to agree to a downsizing of their estates and to take action collectively. This situation makes it harder to realize the urban transformations’ legal obligation of approval by at least 2/3rds of the rights holders. Furthermore, meeting of the investor’s and all the rights holders’ project rights on the project area will inevitably result in new urbanization problems in the future.

Research Limitations/Implications

Due to the not being able to collect enough social and economic data on Okmeydanı Urban Transformation Area, the developed transformation model was based mostly on technical and physical data. Therefore, the social evaluation, which is one of the requirements of a successful urban transformation could not be conducted.

Practical Implications

The determined urban transformation model for Okmeydanı Urban Transformation Project was developed in a transparent and egalitarian approach using the official data, supported by scientific methods, and preparing the legal background for all decisions.

Social Implications

Although the social data of the area was not one of the parameters used in the developed transformation and distribution model, the implementation of the transformation model is consistent with the social benefit expected from transformation projects since it is based on the principle of keeping the resident rights holders in their neighborhood after the completion of the project.


Okmeydanı is an area that is not suitable for implementation of previous transformation models due to its ownership structure, its licensed and unlicensed constructions since 1950s, its historic past and protection status, location, population size and density, and inevitability of unified action from its residents because of the zoning plans. Therefore, a unique model that befits the unique properties of the area was developed.


urban transformation, urban regeneration, flat for land basis model, Beyoğlu, Okmeydanı

Full Text:



Akkar Ercan, M. (2013). "Urban regeneration And sustainable community development in historic neighborhoods of Istanbul" pp. 443-454 in The Routledge Companion To Urban Regeneration, edited by M.E. Leary and J. McCarthy, New York: Routledge

Atkinson, R. (2004). "Kentsel Dönüşüm, Ortaklıklar ve Yerel Katılım: İngiltere Deneyimi", Uluslararası Kentsel Dönüşüm Uygulamaları Sempozyumu, 27-30 Kasım 2004, Türkiye

Auerbach, G. (2013) "Urban politics and public policy-Looking back and going forward: ‘Project Renewal in one Israeli City, Cities", Cities, 31, 197-207.

Bir, A , Kaçar, M , Acar, Ş . (2006). "Türk Menzil Okçuluğu, Yay ve Okları", Osmanlı Bilimi Araştırmaları, 8 (1), 39-67

Beswick, C.A. and Tsenkova, S. (2002). "Overview of urban regeneration policies" pp. 9-16 in Urban Regeneration Learning from the British Experience, edited by S. Tsenkova, Calgary: Faculty of Enviromental Design University of Calgary

Carmon, N. (1999). "Three generations of urban renewal policies: analysis and policy implications", Geoforum, 30(2), 145-158.

Clay P.L. (1979). "Neighbourhood Renewal: middle-class resettlement and incımbent upgrading in American neighborhoods", Toronto: Free Press

Couch, C. (1990). "Urban renewal, Theory and Practice", London: Macmillan Education.

Couch, C. and Fraser, C. (2003). "Introduction: the European Context and Theoretical Framework " pp. 1-16 in Urban Regeneration in Europe. edited by C. Couch, C. Fraser and S. Percy. Blackwell Science, Oxford Real Estate Issues.

Couch C., Sykes O. and Börstinghaus W. (2011). "Thirty years of urban regeneration in Britain, Germany and France: The importance of context and path dependency" Progress in Planing, 75(1), 1-52

Couch C., Sykes O. and Cocks M. (2013). "The Changing Context Of Urban Regeneration In North West Europe" pp. 33-44 in The Routledge Companion To Urban Regeneration, edited by M.E. Leary and J. McCarthy, New York: Routledge

Diacon D. (1991). "Deterioration of the Public Sector Housing Stock", England: Gower Publishing

Donnison, D. (1993). "The Challenge of Urban Regeneration for Community Development" , Community Development, 28(4): 293-298

Fraser C. (2003). " Change in the European Industrial City " pp. 17-33 in Urban Regeneration in Europe, edited by C. Couch, C. Fraser, S. Percy, Malden: Blackwell Publishing

Gazi Üniversitesi, (2015). "İstanbul İli Beyoğlu İlçesi Okmeydanı Riskli Alan Teknik Raporu, İstanbul

Hague, C. (2004). "Konut Alanlarında Dönüşüm ve Konut Alanları Yenileme Projelerinin Başarılması", Uluslararası Kentsel Dönüşüm Uygulamaları Sempozyumu, 27-30 Kasım 2004, Türkiye

Harmoni, (2017). "İstanbul İli, Beyoğlu İlçesi, Fetihtepe-Piripaşa-Piyalepaşa-Keçecipiri-Kaptanpaşa-Kulaksız Mahalleleri (Okmeydanı Kentsel Dönüşüm Projesi)- Değerleme Modellemesi Açıklama Raporu", İstanbul

Harvey D. (1987). "Flexıble Accumulatıon Through Urbanızatıon: Reflectıons On ‘Post‐Modernısm’ In The Amerıcan Cıty", Antipode, 19 (3), 260-286.

İBB, (2012). "Okmeydanı Tarihi Sit Alanları Koruma Amaçlı ve Etkileşim Geçiş Sahası 1/1000 Ölçekli Uygulama İmar Planı Açıklama Raporu", İstanbul

Kennedy M. and Leonard M. (2001). "Dealing With Neighborhood Change: A Primer Gentrification and Policy Choises", A Discussion Paper Prepared for the Brockings Institution Center on Urban and Metropolitan Policy, US.

Koebel C.T. (1996). "Urban Redevelopment, Displacement and the Future of the American City", in Community Affairs Office Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond, Virginia

Lees, L. (2007). "Vision of 'Urban Renaissance' the urban task force report and the urban white paper", pp. 61-82 in Urban Renaissance? New labour, community and urban policy, edited by R. Imrie and M. Raco, Bristol:The Policy Press

Moseley, J. (2006). https://www.building.co.uk/10-ways-to-define-regeneration/3062794.article

Oc T., Heath T. and Tiesdell S. (2010). "Desing in Historic Quarters", Rivista di Scienzedel Turismo, 1(2), 51-74

Pacione M. (2001). "Urban Geography: A Global Perspective", New York: Routledge

Roberts P. (2000). "The Evolution, Definition and Purpose of Urban Regeneration" pp. 9-37 in Urban Regeneration A Handbook, edited by P. Roberts and H. Sykes, Thousand Oaks, New delhi: Sage Publications

Rui L. (2003). "Urban Renewal at Neighbourhood Level A Case Study at Huangjiadun Neighbourhood in Wuhan City", MSc in Geoinformation Science and Earth Observation with Specialization in Urban Planning and Management, ITC, Hollanda.

Teixeira, J.M. (2010). "Urban Renessaince : The Role Of Urban Regeneration inEurope’s Urban Development Future", Serbian Architectural Journal, 711(4), 97-114

Thomas, S. (2003). "A Glossary of Regeneration and Local Economic Development", Manchester: Local Economic Strategy Center.

Torus, B. and Aydın Yönet, N. (2016). "Urban Transformation in İstanbul. Archi-Cultural Interactions Through the Silk Road" 4.th International Conference, 16-18 July 2016, pp. 126-129, Japan

Verhage, R. (2005). "Renewing urban renewal in France, the UK and the Netherlands: Introduction", Journal of Housing and Built Environment, 20(3), 215-227.

Visscher, H., Gruis V. and Kleinhans, R. (2006). "Introduction" pp. 1-18 in Sustainable Neıghbourhood Transformation, edited by V. Gruis, H. Visscher, R. Kleinhans, Amsterdam: IOS Press

Yalpır, Ş., (2007). “Bulanık Mantık Metodolojisi ile Taşınmaz Değerleme Modelinin Geliştirilmesi ve Uygulaması: Konya Örneği”, Doktora Tezi, Selçuk Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Konya

Zheng, W.H., Shen, G.O., Wang, H. (2014). "A review of recent studies on sustainable urban renewal", Habitat International, 41, 272-279.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15320/ICONARP.2020.115
Fatal error: Call to undefined function curl_init() in /var/www/html/iconarp/lib/pkp/classes/webservice/WebService.inc.php on line 198