ICONARP International Journal of Architecture and Planning ISSN: 2147-9380 https://iconarp.ktun.edu.tr/index.php/iconarp <p><strong>Konya Technical University Faculty of Architecture and Design is the owner and publisher of ICONARP.</strong></p> <p>ICONARP as a free, open access, academic e-journal considers original research articles and viewpoints in peer-reviewed.</p> <p>Architecture, Planning and Design are strongly affected by other disciplines such as fine arts, philosophy, engineering, geography, economics, politics, sociology, history, psychology, geology, information technology, ecology, law, security and management. However, there are not enough academic journals which specifically focus on the connections of architecture, planning and design with other fields of science. <strong>ICONARP</strong> aims to fill that gap. Our scope is to provide a suitable space for theoretical, methodological and empirical papers, which use global and local perspectives together, in architectural and urban studies.</p> <p>ICONARP aims to be a reputable platform for the studies of Architecture, Planning and Design.</p> <p>ICONARP's objectives are: </p> <ul> <li>To question global and local interactions in the field of Architecture, Planning and Design,</li> <li>To discover the relationship between Architecture, Planning and Design,</li> <li>To increase the contribution of Architecture, Planning and Design to social and behavioral sciences,</li> <li>To discover the relationship of Architecture, Planning and Design with other fields of science that are affected and affect,</li> <li>To develop theoretical and methodological foundations of Architecture, Planning and Design,</li> <li>To discuss the role of architects, planners and designers today and in the future,</li> <li>To compare the differences between architecture, planning and design research, practices and education in different countries,</li> <li>To bring a scientific view of current issues and discussions in field of Architecture, Planning and Design,</li> <li>To discover innovative methods and techniques in the field of Architecture, Planning and Design</li> </ul> <h3>ICONARP is indexed and abstracted by:</h3> <ul> <li>EMERGING SOURCES CITATION INDEX (Web of Science)</li> <li>DOAJ (Directory of Open Access Journals)</li> <li>TR DİZİN (TUBITAK Ulakbim)</li> <li>ICONDA Bibliographic (The International Construction Database)</li> <li>AVERY INDEX</li> <li>ULRICHSWEB (Global Serials Directory)</li> <li>NSD Norwegian Register for Scientific Journals</li> <li>OpenAIRE</li> <li>OCLC WorldCat</li> <li>BASE (Bielefeld Academic Search Engine)</li> <li>SCILIT</li> <li>ROAD (Directory of Open Access Scholarly Resources)</li> <li>DSPACE</li> </ul> en-US <p class="paragraph"><strong>COPYRIGHT POLICY</strong> </p><p class="paragraph">1. The International Journal of Architecture and Planning (ICONARP) open access articles are licensed under a <a title="Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDeriatives 4.0 International" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/" target="_blank">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDeriatives 4.0 International</a> (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0). This license lets the author to share (copy and redistribute) his/her article in any medium or format.</p><p class="paragraph">2. ICONARP cannot revoke these freedoms as long as you follow the license terms. Under the following terms:</p><p class="paragraph"><span>The author must give <span class="helpLink">appropriate credit</span></span>, provide a link to ICONARP, and <span><span class="helpLink">indicate if changes were made on the article</span></span>. The author may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the ICONARP endorses the author or his/her use.</p><p class="paragraph">The author may not use the article for <span class="helpLink">commercial purposes</span>.</p><p class="paragraph">If the author <span class="helpLink">remix, transform, or build upon</span> the article, s/he may not distribute the modified material.</p><p class="paragraph">The author may share print or electronic copies of the Article with colleagues. </p><p class="paragraph">The author may use the Article within his/her employer’s institution or company for educational or research purposes, including use in course packs. </p><p class="paragraph">3. The author authorizes the International Journal of Architecture and Planning (ICONARP) to exclusively publish online his/her Article, and to post his/her biography at the end of the article, and to use the articles. </p><p class="paragraph">4. The author agrees to the International Journal of Architecture and Planning (ICONARP) using any images from the Article on the cover of the Journal, and in any marketing material. </p><p class="paragraph">5. As the author, copyright in the Article remains in his/her name. </p>6. All papers should be submitted electronically. All submitted manuscripts must be original work that is not under submission at another journal or under consideration for publication in another form, such as a monograph or chapter of a book. Authors of submitted papers are obligated not to submit their paper for publication elsewhere until an editorial decision is rendered on their submission. Further, authors of accepted papers are prohibited from publishing the results in other publications that appear before the paper is published in the Journal. iconarp.editor@ktun.edu.tr (Assoc.Prof.Dr. Fatih EREN) iconarp.editor@ktun.edu.tr (Fatih EREN (Editor-in-Chief)) Mon, 28 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0300 OJS 3.3.0.3 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 A CASE STUDY ON GENERATIVE BUILDING SKIN FORMING BY EMPLOYING BUILDING INFORMATION MODELLING (BIM) TOOLS https://iconarp.ktun.edu.tr/index.php/iconarp/article/view/530 <p><strong>Purpose </strong></p><p>This study aims to produce generative curtain wall geometries based on predetermined parameters such as storey information, shadow zones, preliminary building unit cost, frequency, etc. in a BIM platform for the preliminary design of a future project in Basmane and understand its novel outcomes and implications.</p><p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach </strong></p><p>The methodology is construed over four successive phases, namely: the built environment modeling, analyses for a solid understanding of the study area, determination of the generative design criteria, and finally design solutions. In the initial phase, the case-study building in Basmane with the surrounding environment was digitally modeled for the following analyses. Several programs apart from BIM have been utilized for the daylight zones and wind simulations. The daylight areas affecting the surface of the studied building were marked schematically per the simulation data. Subsequently, the area of the curtain wall, material type, preliminary building unit cost (assembly/labor and material cost), the height of storey, the density of elements, and fixed shading devices parameters were tested via optimization thru generative design methodology and provide potential design solutions by utilization of BIM tools.</p><p><strong>Findings </strong></p><p>The findings of this study could be boiled down to a single comprehensive objective of generating outputs of assorted design solutions thru a generative design approach. When the output data set is visualized via parallel coordinate graphs, it could be well articulated that the classification of rule-based relationships and the criteria interrelations were based on the designer's decisions.</p><p><strong>Research Limitations/Implications </strong></p><p>This study was examined on a case basis by an experimental approach. It shall be considered that the curtain wall construction encompasses diverse materials, connection details, and construction techniques that affect the final cost thus this research was conducted at the preliminary design stage and might not reflect actual costs.</p><p><strong>Social/Practical Implications </strong></p><p>Albeit the technical aspect of the curtain walls is not included in this case study, it helps generative design culture by demonstrating the extent of the opportunities it offers to designers in the preliminary design stage.</p><p><strong>Originality/Value </strong></p><p>This study is a show-case of a preliminary design for an actual building stock in the vicinity of Basmane focusing on the building envelope design process with multiple parameters and should be regarded as an opportunity to understand how innovative solutions alike are put forward for the use of designers.</p> Veli Mustafa Yönder Copyright (c) 2020 ICONARP International Journal of Architecture and Planning https://iconarp.ktun.edu.tr/index.php/iconarp/article/view/530 Mon, 28 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0300 DARWINIAN APPROACH AND MUTATIONS: BJARKE INGELS (BIG) AND ANALYSIS OF HIS STEPPED PIXELS BUILDINGS https://iconarp.ktun.edu.tr/index.php/iconarp/article/view/532 <p><strong>Purpose </strong></p><p>Ingels, who was influenced by Darwin, designs new mutants by developing prototypes. This study, it is aimed to scrutinize the public space alternatives proposed for the 21st-century city through the comparative analysis of the stepped pixelated buildings, one of the mutants of the architect. It has been how much questioned the stages, which offer a public space proposal, in the stepped pixelated buildings allow urban dialogue.</p><p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach </strong></p><p>While Ingels' design philosophy constitutes the conceptual approach of the study, this study is prepared by using the architect's discourse, interviews, videos, digital texts, and literature studies. In this context, the repetitive examples that the architect defines as mutation and adaptation are classified. The stepped pixels in this classification are the main subject of this study. Ingels' pixelated buildings; Suitable human scale, the language of mass and form, relationship between human and space, the suggestion of space for experience, public space concept, dialogue spaces were discussed based on architect's approach.</p><p><strong>Findings </strong></p><p>Ingels went in the way of dividing the object through pixels when designing macro-scale structures. Thus, he made the big picture more understandable and perceptible. He tried to achieve the human scale with the gradual pixels rising from the ground level. In this way, Ingels' pixels buildings have transformed themselves into an experiential part of urban.</p><p><strong>Research Limitations/Implications</strong></p><p>These parameters were evaluated under four dwelling buildings of the stepped pixel in the case study (Lego Tower, Mountain Dwellings, King Street West, 79 &amp; Park).</p><p><strong>Social/Practical Implications</strong></p><p>At this research, it is foreseen that the new living space suggestions consisting of stepped pixels designed by Ingels will undergo different mutations and come up with new urban alternatives in the future.</p><p><strong>Originality/Value </strong></p><p>Pixelated dwellings, one of the mutations of Ingels, who constantly draws attention to the problem of not integrating the buildings into the city in today's architecture, have been analysed and evaluated in the context of urban alliterations. In this way, research, a first in its field is important in terms of opening to discuss the alternative urban living spaces proposed by the architect for 21st-century architecture in the contemporary architectural environment.</p> Ayşenur Dağ Gürcan, H.Ercan Gürcan Copyright (c) 2020 ICONARP International Journal of Architecture and Planning https://iconarp.ktun.edu.tr/index.php/iconarp/article/view/532 Mon, 28 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0300 SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION ANALYSIS OF SYRIAN IMMIGRANT POPULATION PROBLEM IN FATIH - ISTANBUL https://iconarp.ktun.edu.tr/index.php/iconarp/article/view/538 <div class="WordSection1"><p><strong>Purpose </strong></p><p>The paper reflects the impacts of the "Arab Spring" that broke out in Tunisia and Syria and led to the loss of more than 300,000 people. A wave of migration began in 2011, especially from Syria to its neighbouring countries including Turkey and Lebanon. Syrian migratory flows have caused social, economic, and ecological problems in the hosting countries. Turkey is one of the countries most affected by the wave of migration from Syria. Syrian refugees were unequally distributed or dispersed not only in leading metropolitan areas of western Turkey but also in many neighbouring cities in the southeast. The distribution of Syrian refugees in Turkish cities revealed considerable spatial heterogeneity and differences.</p><p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach</strong></p><p>The sample size of the study is 953 and the margin of error of this sample size is ± 3.17 at a 95% confidence level. Stratified simple random sampling was used. Interviews were</p><p><strong>Findings</strong></p><p>Fatih in İstanbul is one of the districts where Syrian immigrants most often settle. As part of the research on social risk mapping for Fatih District, immigrants - especially Syrian immigrants - have been identified as the main cause of problems by residents (the locals), with this group experiencing higher layoffs in terms of economic opportunities. Our analysis found that the main reason why Syrian immigrants are cited as a problem is "economic motivation". The rate at which Syrians are declared a problem in the districts of Fatih district is directly proportional to the distribution of the Syrian immigrant population.</p><p><strong>Research Limitations/Implications </strong></p><p>Time restriction, unfavourable weather conditions, missing information for socio economic status calculation, reluctance of women to join the survey.</p><p><strong>Originality/Value </strong></p><p>This study is the first research which examined spatially, how forced migration has an impact on local residents. Its results that can be useful for social measures towards urban planning and management to reduce the negative effects caused from forced migration population.</p></div><p> </p> Ömer Bilen, Mehmet Gür, Ersan Koç, Ebru Kamacı Karahan Copyright (c) 2020 ICONARP International Journal of Architecture and Planning https://iconarp.ktun.edu.tr/index.php/iconarp/article/view/538 Mon, 28 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0300 BOSPHORUS COASTAL ROAD AND SETTLEMENTS BETWEEN BEŞIKTAŞ AND BEBEK IN 1939 PLAN https://iconarp.ktun.edu.tr/index.php/iconarp/article/view/539 <p><strong>Purpose</strong></p><p>The aim of the study is to question whether this plan, which was signed by Henri Prost and showing the settlements between Beşiktaş and Bebek on the European side of the Bosphorus in detail and explains them in cross-sections, is implemented or not, and to reveal the effect of the plan on the formation of current state of the Bosphorus coasts. In the study, which decisions are taken during the planning process are also questioned.</p><p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach</strong></p><p>In the study, the city centers of Beşiktaş, Ortaköy, Arnavutköy, Kuruçeşme, Bebek and the settlements between them and the conditions of the coastal road before, in and after 1939 are examined with the help of maps and aerial photographs. With the aerial photographs that have survived until today, the physical change of the urban texture over time and its current situation are also revealed.</p><p><strong>Findings</strong></p><p>As a result of the examination, it was determined that most of the plan, which was approved in 1939, was implemented between 1956-1958, during the Menderes period. In this process, many settlements lost their original urban texture, historical structures, and architectural identities. It can be said that the seeds of the pile road, which was built during the Dalan period and cut the connection of the mansions with the sea, was planted with this plan. It was also possible to obtain some clues about the planning approach of the Prost period from this plan. Accordingly, it can be listed as opening squares, turning dead-end streets into streets, widening the streets, and cleansing industrial-related spaces from the coastline. The fact that these plan decisions are encountered in other regions of Istanbul during the Prost period, suggests that although Prost did not draw the 1939 plan, it had a share in its design.</p><p><strong>Research Limitations/Implications</strong></p><p>Due to the lack of a clear aerial photograph or map after 1939 until 1955, the year in which the changes foreseen in this plan were applied could not be determined clearly, and the time interval was stated.</p><p><strong>Originality/Value</strong></p><p>This plan, being one of the first steps of the Bosphorus coastal regulations on the European side, is an original document that has not been evaluated in previous research. This plan was drawn when Henri Prost was working as an urban planning specialist in the Istanbul Municipality Zoning Directorate and it bears the signature of Prost's approval.</p> Sezgi Giray Küçük Copyright (c) 2020 ICONARP International Journal of Architecture and Planning https://iconarp.ktun.edu.tr/index.php/iconarp/article/view/539 Mon, 28 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0300 CHALLENGES TO URBAN HOUSING POLICIES IMPLEMENTATION EFFORTS: THE CASE OF NAIROBI, KENYA https://iconarp.ktun.edu.tr/index.php/iconarp/article/view/536 <p><strong>Purpose</strong></p><p>The arrival of native African communities from rural Kenya looking for opportunities led to population growth. Nairobi, therefore, has rapidly urbanized and sprawled 18 km2, and 688 km2 in 1900, and 1963 respectively. With population growth, housing demand has surpassed supply resulting in the housing crisis. The aim of this paper is to a) examine the policy and legal efforts put forward to address the housing problem in Nairobi, b) discuss the challenges to the urban housing policies implementation efforts, and c) make suggestions based on the findings of social, economic and infrastructural impacts of the intervention measures.</p><p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach</strong></p><p>The research establishes that government efforts to address the housing problem through measures like urban migration restriction, employer housing, housing schemes, slum demolitions, and slum upgrading have not been successful due to challenges of land security tenure, gaps in policy enforcement, and compliance, insufficient public participation among others.</p><p><strong>Findings</strong></p><p>The paper makes appropriate suggestions to reform the policy approaches by focusing not only on housing aspects but economic, and land tenure reforms, and the extent of public involvement.</p><p><strong>Research Limitations/Implications </strong></p><p>The study analyses secondary sources including research articles, theses, and governments whose data were collected through primary methods like interviews, field observation, and administration of questionnaires. It, therefore, limited the findings in case of Nairobi.</p><p><strong>Practical Implications </strong></p><p>The study contributes to recommend that provision of the basic services be carried out in the slums alongside and economic empowerment programs to relieve the residents of financial poverty. Slum upgrading programs should therefore seek to impact the socio-economic lives of the slum dwellers.</p><p><strong>Originality/Value </strong></p><p>This study explores past and present efforts by different regimes and non-governmental organizations to give an answer to the housing crisis in Kenya. and the subsequent development of slums and informal settlements.</p> Collins Ouma Agayi, Özer Karakayacı Copyright (c) 2020 ICONARP International Journal of Architecture and Planning https://iconarp.ktun.edu.tr/index.php/iconarp/article/view/536 Mon, 28 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0300 A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON DAYLIGHT PERFORMANCE OF KONYA MOSQUES BUILT IN ANATOLIAN SELJUK AND OTTOMAN PERIOD https://iconarp.ktun.edu.tr/index.php/iconarp/article/view/537 <p><strong>Purpose </strong></p><p>Daylight control and energy efficiency in architectural design is accepted as one of the main inputs of sustainable architecture. In the present study, we investigate the importance of light factor and daylighting design criterias as the construction technique of mosques improves by adhering to different periods.</p><p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach</strong></p><p>Interior space designs of three different Mosques are displayed via plan sketches, therefore every mosque is evaluated particularly in summer term periods when users pray inside mosques in particular day and hour periods. In-situ evaluation results are tested by a luxmeter and comfort device. Each mosques’ technical plans are modelled in 3D programme. Measures are evaluated only when there is natural light inside.</p><p><strong>Findings</strong></p><p>The major design criterias and construction techniques stated in this study will give inspiration to builders to design praying halls which have perfect lighting performance with sacred sense of worshipping activities with full of serenity and concentration.</p><p><strong>Research Limitations/Implications</strong></p><p>Short-term and very limited in situ measurements were taken in Konya mosques due to pandemic precautions. Also evolved computational datas of DB programme are the main limitation of this study.</p><p><strong>Originality/Value</strong></p><p>This study is the first to emphasise the importance and development of daylight in places of worship in the center of Konya, depending on the order of architectural design according to different periods. There are very few studies that examine the effect of daylight in worship places and its impact on construction and design. Daylighting in historic Islamic architecture can be further studied via simulation programme.</p> Ayşıl Coşkuner Pamuk, İbrahim Agah Taştemir, Ümit Arpacıoğlu Copyright (c) 2020 ICONARP International Journal of Architecture and Planning https://iconarp.ktun.edu.tr/index.php/iconarp/article/view/537 Mon, 28 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0300 ‘FLOATING PUBLIC SPACE’ FOR BIRDS: DESIGN RESEARCH AND PROTOTYPE FABRICATION IN HALIÇ https://iconarp.ktun.edu.tr/index.php/iconarp/article/view/533 <p><strong>Purpose </strong></p><p>This text intends to discuss the outcome of the graduate design studio titled ‘hydrophilic structures’. Studio research is organized on two primary axis; revealing the potentials of floating spaces as an extension of public spaces on one hand, and digital design and fabrication technologies for prototyping on the other. Concepts such as floating structures, water interaction and public space may initially refer to human utilization however, non-human living organisms are critical for their decisive role on the qualities of the water and the urban environment.</p><p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach </strong></p><p>Design of floating structures and water interaction had been a niche inside the traditional culture and practice of architectural design, whereas design and production skills in connection with water had historically developed mostly in the field of engineering and transportation. Floating structures and their potential for unconventional spatial experiences have recently engaged in the focus of contemporary design culture, mainly due to the increasing density and lack of public spaces on the land.</p><p><strong>Findings </strong></p><p>The proposal, designed through computational tools and fabricated through robotic technology, concentrates on various ways of interaction with water and acknowledge research on the spatial requirements for the birds, as the users of space.</p><p><strong>Research Limitations/Implications </strong></p><p class="Gvde">Fabrication of the floating prototype is assumed as a primary target for its observation potential enabling an original discussion of the design parameters for bird species. Limitations of the existing fabrication tools and sustainability of the practically available materials were assumed to be out of the scope of this study.</p><p><strong>Social/Practical Implications </strong></p><p>Design-research presented here covers principal case-studies of floating spaces, the buoyancy principles, material tests and essential variables of ecological dynamics in Haliç as a general framework.</p><p><strong>Originality/Value </strong></p><p>The subsequent prototype serves for a specific bird population utilizing Haliç as a part of their life cycle, rather than human utilization.</p><p class="Gvde"> </p> Kutay Karabağ, Zeynep Şahbaz Copyright (c) 2020 ICONARP International Journal of Architecture and Planning https://iconarp.ktun.edu.tr/index.php/iconarp/article/view/533 Mon, 28 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0300 “INHERITED GENTRIFICATION”: CHANGING PROFILES OF GENTRIFIERS VIA INHERITANCE, THE CASE OF BOZCAADA https://iconarp.ktun.edu.tr/index.php/iconarp/article/view/535 <p><strong>Purpose</strong></p><p>Rural areas have been through structural changes. The reorganisation of the rural economy from agriculture to services, in addition to improvements in transportation and infrastructures, migration patterns have started to reverse in some regions and hence to change the social composition of those regions’ rural areas. These changes and their implications have been largely debated in the rural gentrification literature, mainly by re-presenting cases from the Anglo-Saxon world. This paper contributes to the rural gentrification literature by presenting an empirical study on a socio-cultural and demographic change that, together with a local economic shift, is taking place in a location other than the Global North.</p><p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach </strong></p><p>A qualitative case study examining the changes on the socio-spatial structure of a small Turkish island, Bozcaada, is presented through the following principal indicators of countryside gentrification: the change in the socio-economic composition of its citizens; the emphasis on cultural or national heritage and aesthetics; the emergence of new institutions leading to the closure of older ones; the diversification of products and services; and the change in properties’ value.</p><p><strong>Findings</strong></p><p>The first-generation newcomers were in line with the typical gentrifier’s profile of rural gentrification studies. Differently, the second-generation newcomers have shown diversity in terms of both motivation and socio-economic class. This study argues that the second-generation newcomers took part naturally in the gentrification process not because they inherited their parents’ properties, but also they play an important role in the significant socio-economic and cultural changes that are still taking place on the island.<strong></strong></p><p><strong>Research Limitations/Implications </strong></p><p>The fact that the research is based on a single case study is a limitation for its generalisation. However, the case examined provides a basis for future work that may validate its findings in different contexts.</p><p><strong>Originality/Value</strong></p><p>This paper contributes to the rural gentrification literature by introducing a new type of gentrification process, the ‘inherited gentrification’ with the identification of the second-generation gentrifiers of the island, who are the direct descendants of the first gentrifiers.</p> Duygu Okumuş Copyright (c) 2020 ICONARP International Journal of Architecture and Planning https://iconarp.ktun.edu.tr/index.php/iconarp/article/view/535 Mon, 28 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0300